Brilliance has an obligation not only to create but also to communicate. Platt The trouble with most of us is that we would rather be ruined by praise than saved by criticism. Drafts of each stage of the paper will be evaluated during the course and must be turned in with the final paper.
Preparation[ edit ] The actual day-to-day records of scientific information are kept in research notebooks or logbooks. These are usually kept indefinitely as the basic evidence of the work, and are often kept in duplicate, signed, notarized, and archived. The purpose is to preserve the evidence for scientific priority, and in particular for priority for obtaining patents.
They have also been used in scientific disputes. Since the availability of computers, the notebooks in some data-intensive fields have been kept as database records, and appropriate software is commercially available.
In some fields both are used, with preliminary reports, working papers, or preprints followed by a formal article. Articles are usually prepared at the end of a project, or at the end of components of a particularly large one.
In preparing such an article vigorous rules for scientific writing have to be followed. Impact factor and Copy editing Often, career advancement depends upon publishing in high-impact journals, which, especially in hard and applied sciences, are usually published in English.
One way that some international authors are beginning to overcome this problem is by contracting with freelance medical copy editors who are native speakers of English and specialize in ESL English as a second language editing to polish their manuscripts' English to a level that high-impact journals will accept.
IMRAD A scientific article has a standardized structure, which varies only slightly in different subjects. Although the IMRAD structure emphasizes the organization of content and in scientific journal articles, each section Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion has unique conventions for scientific writing style.
However, several key formatting requirements need to be met: The title attracts readers' attention and informs them about the contents of the article. The names and affiliations of all authors are given. In the wake of some scientific misconduct cases, publishers often require that all co-authors know and agree on the content of the article.
The context of previous scientific investigations should be presented, by citation relevant documents in the existing literature, usually in a section called an "Introduction".
Empirical techniques, laid out in a section usually called "Materials and Methods", should be described in such a way that a subsequent scientist, with appropriate knowledge of and experience in the relevant field, should be able to repeat the observations and know whether he or she has obtained the same result.
This naturally varies between subjects, and does not apply to mathematics and related subjects.
Similarly, the results of the investigation, in a section usually called "Results", data should be presented in tabular or graphic form imagechartschematicdiagram or drawing.
These display elements should be accompanied by a caption and discussed in the text of the article. Interpretation of the meaning of the results is usually addressed in a "Discussion" or "Conclusions" section.
The conclusions drawn should be based on the new empirical results while taking established knowledge into consideration, in such a way that any reader with knowledge of the field can follow the argument and confirm that the conclusions are sound.
That is, acceptance of the conclusions must not depend on personal authorityrhetorical skillor faith. Finally, a "References" or "Literature Cited" section lists the sources cited by the authors.
Scholarly peer review Though peer review and the learned journal format are not themselves an essential part of scientific literature, they are both convenient ways of ensuring that the above fundamental criteria are met.
They are essentially a means of quality controla term which also encompasses other means towards the same goal. The "quality" being referred to here is the scientific one, which consists of transparency and repeatability of the research for independent verification, the validity of the conclusions and interpretations drawn from the reported data, overall importance for advance within a given field of knowledge, novelty, and in certain fields applicability as well.
The lack of peer review is what makes most technical reports and World Wide Web publications unacceptable as contributions to the literature. The relatively weak peer review often applied to books and chapters in edited books means that their status is also second-tier, unless an author's personal standing is so high that prior achievement and a continued stake in one's reputation within the scientific community signals a clear expectation of quality.
The emergence of institutional digital repositories where scholars can post their work as it is submitted to a print-based journal has taken formal peer review into a state of flux. Though publicizing a preprint online does not prevent it from being peer reviewed, it does allow an unreviewed copy to be widely circulated.
On the positive side this change has led to faster dissemination of novel work within the scientific community; on the negative it has made it more difficult to discern a valid scientific contribution from the unmeritorious.
Increasing reliance on abstracting servicesespecially on those available electronically, means that the effective criterion for whether a publication format forms part of the established, trusted literature is whether it is covered by these services; in particular, by the specialised service for the discipline concerned such as Chemical Abstracts Serviceand by the major interdisciplinary services such as those marketed by the Institute for Scientific Information.
Ethics[ edit ] The transfer of copyright from author to publisher, used by some journals, can be controversial because many authors want to propagate their ideas more widely and re-use their material elsewhere without the need for permission.
Usually an author or authors circumvent that problem by rewriting an article and using other pictures. Some publishers may also want publicity for their journal so will approve facsimile reproduction unconditionally; other publishers are more resistant.
Honesty and integrity is a duty of each author and person, expert-reviewer and member of journal editorial boards.Scientific Journals represent the collaborative efforts of many scientists and scholars from various disciplines. The rules and guidelines of article writing as well as formatting may vary with the type of the journal and the publisher.
Sometimes, journal editors will invite scientists to write a review for their journal. Choosing a Topic If you need to write a review article but don't know where to start, keep some of these tips in mind.
articles in peer-reviewed medical journals with little direction or guidance from mentors. Although read-ing and critiquing scientiﬁc articles can be a valuable tool for becoming a medical writer, good scientiﬁc writing requires a basic understanding of the struc-ture and .
Passive Voice in Scientific Writing Few topics engender such heated debates as that of active vs. passive voice. This argument is relevant to writing in general, but I think it's particularly so to scientific writing.
Before submitting a paper to a scientific journal The first factor to keep in mind is the need to ensure that you have a clear, logical message.
The second is to present your paper in the correct format for the journal to which you intend to submit the paper. 1. Write a Cover Letter. For most journals, you will need to write a cover letter that will indicate the title of the paper, the name of the author/s and the main idea or contribution of your article.