This type of essay is aimed to reflect a personal event or experience of the essay author. The main condition is that it has to be a certain personal experience on which the author has his very own perception. This experience or even is revealed in the essay in order to demonstrate its importance for understanding social relations and the essence of people.
Overview[ edit ] What sort of name shall we give to verbs like 'believe' and 'wish' and so forth? I should be inclined to call them 'propositional verbs'. This is merely a suggested name for convenience, because they are verbs which have the form of relating an object to a proposition.
As I have been explaining, that is not what they really do, but it is convenient to call them propositional verbs. Of course you might call them 'attitudes', but I should not like that because it is a psychological term, and although all the instances in our experience are psychological, there is no reason to suppose that all the verbs I am talking of are psychological.
There is never any reason to suppose that sort of thing. What a proposition is, is one thing. How we feel about it, or how we regard it, is another.
We can accept it, assert it, believe it, command it, contest it, declare it, deny it, doubt it, enjoin it, exclaim it, expect it.
Different attitudes toward propositions are called propositional attitudes, and they are also discussed under the headings of intentionality and linguistic modality.
Many problematic situations in real life arise from the circumstance that many different propositions in many different modalities are in the air at once. In order to compare propositions of different colours and flavours, as it were, we have no basis for comparison but to examine the underlying propositions themselves.
Thus we are brought back to matters of language and logic. Despite the name, propositional attitudes are not regarded as psychological attitudes proper, since the formal disciplines of linguistics and logic are concerned with nothing more concrete than what can be said in general about their formal properties and their patterns of interaction.
One topic of central concern is the relation between the modalities of assertion and belief, perhaps with intention thrown in for good measure.
For example, we frequently find ourselves faced with the question of whether or not a person's assertions conform to his or her beliefs.
Discrepancies here can occur for many reasons, but when the departure of assertion from belief is intentional, we usually call that a lie. Other comparisons of multiple modalities that frequently arise are the relationships between belief and knowledge and the discrepancies that occur among observations, expectations, and intentions.
Deviations of observations from expectations are commonly perceived as surprisesphenomena that call for explanations to reduce the shock of amazement. A number of software systems are now available to simulate propositional attitudes for industrial purposes, for customer relation management systems, decision support and content generation Galitsky Issues[ edit ] In logic, the formal properties of verbs like assert, believe, command, consider, deny, doubt, imagine, judge, know, want, wish, and a host of others that involve attitudes or intentions toward propositions are notorious for their recalcitrance to analysis.
It provides that, given a true statement of identity, one of its two terms may be substituted for the other in any true statement and the result will be true. It is easy to find cases contrary to this principle.The use of the little conjunctions — especially and and but — comes naturally for most writers.
However, the question whether one can begin a sentence with a small conjunction often arises. "An engaging and satisfying study of literature's intrinsic relationship to philosophy, and of philosophy in its relationship to the rich web of human love and srmvision.com is a book textured with so many lives and stories that it cannot fail to inspire lively debate on the role of novelist as philosopher and on the centrality of love to wisdom." Free TOEFL iBT tips, strategies, guides, links, and more from a TOEFL teacher of over 15 years.
Grammar Bytes! Grammar Instruction with Attitude. Includes detailed terms, interactive exercises, handouts, PowerPoint presentations, videos, and more!
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