The French Revolution was quite different than the American Revolution both in cause and result. However, the French Revolution was similar in that it hailed the principles of Enlightenment thinking. These rights are liberty, property, safety and resistance against oppression" Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen https:
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The deeper causes for its collapse are more difficult to establish. Revisionist historians in the s, however, responded that the bourgeoisie had no monopoly in these sectors; nobles were also heavily involved in foreign tradein banking, and in some of the most modern industries, such as coal mining and chemicals.
Most historians today argue that, on balance, it was becoming increasingly difficult to distinguish clearly between the nobility and the bourgeoisie.
Like most nobles, wealthy French non-nobles were landlords and even owners of seigneuries, which were bought and sold before like any other commodity. There were two areas, however, in which the nobility enjoyed important institutional privileges: Henri de Boulainvilliersin his posthumous essays of on the nobility of France, had even developed a wholly fraudulent but widely praised theory of noble racial superiority.
Thus, there were some issues on which all the bourgeoisie might unite against most of the nobility. But such issues, it is now claimed, were relatively unimportant. Proponents of a social explanation of the Revolution have also emphasized the role of the lower classes.
As population increased during the 18th century, peasant landholdings tended to become smaller, and the gap between rich and poor grew. Although the general trend after had been one of greater overall prosperity, the 20 years before were a time of economic difficulties.
The months leading up to the convening of the Estates-General coincided with the worst subsistence crisis France had suffered in many years; a spring drought was followed by a devastating hailstorm that ruined crops in much of the northern half of the country in July Distressed peasants were thus eager to take advantage of a situation in which the privileges of their landlords seemed vulnerable to attack.
Some felt menaced by the development of large-scale manufacturing enterprises; others resented the regulations that, for example, prevented journeymen from setting up their own shops in competition with privileged guild masters.
Contemporary historiography has refocused the discussion regarding the causes for the Revolution.
Studying the representation of politics, the shape of revolutionary festivals, and the revolutionary cults of sacrifice and heroism, scholars have come to place the transformation of culture at the core of their discussion.
What really mattered was the desanctifying of the monarchy, the new understanding of the self and the public good, and the belief that thinking individuals might seize the state and fundamentally reshape it. Other historians, by contrast, have emphasized the persistent liabilities that French political culture carried through the Enlightenment, such as the suspicion of dissent and the readiness to rely on force to subvert it.
Many government officials, it is true, were finely attuned to public opinion. Visionary architects, developing a style of Revolutionary Neoclassicismsimilarly received royal commissions for new public works. On balance, however, it is hard to see how the monarchy, even if it had resolved its financial problems, which it was very far from doing, could have extended this ecumenism from art to politics and social life.
Thus, the monarchy seemed fated to failure and the stage set for revolution.- The revolutionary governments had recognized that the inefficient tax system was a major issue.
- Before , tax farmers were used in France- groups of financiers who have bought the right to collect taxes for the government. - In France during the 18th century, there was a system named the Ancien régime, which refers to the societal, economic and political structure of France before the French Revolution.
At the top of the pyramid was the absolute monarch Louis XVI. The French Revolution (French: Révolution française French pronunciation: [ʁevɔlysjɔ̃ fʁɑ̃sɛːz]) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many.
Revolution: Revolution, in social and political science, a major, sudden, and hence typically violent alteration in government and in related associations and structures. The term is used by analogy in such expressions as the Industrial Revolution, where it refers to a radical and profound change in economic.
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution., French Revolution document that outlined what the National Assembly considered to be the natural rights of all people and the rights that they possessed as citizens., Revolutionary document of the French Revolution.
SUCCESSORS OF ROME: FRANCIA, Present. Kings and Emperors of the Franks, France, Burgundy, Italy, and Germany. Introduction. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, and the occupation of much of Gaul by the Franks, Roman power never returned far enough to come into conflict with the Frankish kingdom (except, to an extent, in the South of Italy).