Within a few decades, machine intelligence will surpass human intelligence, leading to The Singularity — technological change so rapid and profound it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history. The implications include the merger of biological and nonbiological intelligence, immortal software-based humans, and ultra-high levels of intelligence that expand outward in the universe at the speed of light. For complete details, see below. Until I return to a further explanation, however, do read the first sentence of this paragraph carefully.
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December Edward Teller in Detailed knowledge of fission and fusion weapons is classified to some degree in virtually every industrialized nation. In the United States, such knowledge can by default be classified as " Restricted Data ", even if it is created by persons who are not government employees or associated with weapons programs, in a legal doctrine known as " born secret " though the constitutional standing of the doctrine has been at times called into question; see United States v.
Born secret is rarely invoked for cases of private speculation. The official policy of the United States Department of Energy has been not to acknowledge the leaking of design information, as such acknowledgment would potentially validate the information as accurate. In a small number of prior cases, the U.
Ford defied government orders to remove classified information from his book, Building the H Bomb: Ford claims he used only pre-existing information and even submitted a manuscript to the government, which wanted to remove entire sections of the book for concern that foreign nations could use the information.
Such processes have resulted in a body of unclassified knowledge about nuclear bombs that is generally consistent with official unclassified information releases, related physics, and is thought to be internally consistent, though there are some points of interpretation that are still considered open.
The state of public knowledge about the Teller—Ulam design has been mostly shaped from a few specific incidents outlined in a section below. Basic principle[ edit ] The basic principle of the Teller—Ulam configuration is the idea that different parts of a thermonuclear weapon can be chained together in "stages", with the detonation of each stage providing the energy to ignite the next stage.
At a bare minimum, this implies a primary section that consists of an implosion-type fission bomb a "trigger"and a secondary section that consists of fusion fuel.
The energy released by the primary compresses the secondary through a process called " radiation implosion ", at which point it is heated and undergoes nuclear fusion.
This process could be continued, with energy from the secondary igniting a third fusion stage; Russia's AN " Tsar Bomba " is thought to have been a three-stage fission-fusion-fusion device.
Theoretically by continuing this process thermonuclear weapons with arbitrarily high yield could be constructed.
One possible version of the Teller—Ulam configuration Surrounding the other components is a hohlraum or radiation case, a container that traps the first stage or primary's energy inside temporarily.
The outside of this radiation case, which is also normally the outside casing of the bomb, is the only direct visual evidence publicly available of any thermonuclear bomb component's configuration. Numerous photographs of various thermonuclear bomb exteriors have been declassified.
When fired, the plutonium Pu or uranium U core would be compressed to a smaller sphere by special layers of conventional high explosives arranged around it in an explosive lens pattern, initiating the nuclear chain reaction that powers the conventional "atomic bomb".
The secondary is usually shown as a column of fusion fuel and other components wrapped in many layers.
Around the column is first a "pusher-tamper", a heavy layer of uranium U or lead that helps compress the fusion fuel and, in the case of uranium, may eventually undergo fission itself.
This dry fuel, when bombarded by neutronsproduces tritiuma heavy isotope of hydrogen which can undergo nuclear fusionalong with the deuterium present in the mixture.
See the article on nuclear fusion for a more detailed technical discussion of fusion reactions. Inside the layer of fuel is the " spark plug ", a hollow column of fissile material plutonium or uranium often boosted by deuterium gas. The spark plug, when compressed, can itself undergo nuclear fission because of the shape, it is not a critical mass without compression.
Footnotes. 1. The Sociology of Georg Simmel, Kurt H. Wolff, ed.,(New York: The Free Press, ), pp. ; translated from Soziologie ().. 2. Surface. The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. What is a “smallsword” and how did it descend from the rapier? By the mids, as fashion, firearms, and necessity altered the need for personal self-defense weapons, the long bladed, large-hilted rapier fell out of general use.
The tertiary, if one is present, would be set below the secondary and probably be made up of the same materials. The fissioning primary produces four types of energy: The interstage is responsible for accurately modulating the transfer of energy from the primary to the secondary.
It must direct the hot gases, plasma, electromagnetic radiation and neutrons toward the right place at the right time.A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and .
Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) is an organization under Ministry of Defence. DRDO is dedicatedly working towards enhancing self-reliance in Defence Systems and undertakes design & development leading to the production of world class weapon systems and equipment in accordance with the expressed needs .
A few years ago, the three emerging economies joined forces with Russia and South Africa to form the BRICS group. In March, the BRICS leaders decided to launch their own development bank, with a.
Weapons is the rich and exciting story of arms through the ages―from the first tied stone thrown by prehistoric hunters to the super bombs of today.
Illustrated with the unusually detailed and astonishingly realistic drawings of Edwin Tunis, it is a weapon-by-weapon account of human ingenuity in the invention and improvement of arms for defense and offense.
What is a “smallsword” and how did it descend from the rapier? By the mids, as fashion, firearms, and necessity altered the need for personal self-defense weapons, the long bladed, large-hilted rapier fell out of general use.
Here is an example of a persuasive essay question and examples of really bad to really good persuasive essays written to answer the question. You should read the example answers to get ideas about what are good types of answers and what are bad types of answers.
Here are 2 activities which require you to organize the paragraphs in a persuasive essay .