Push factors include what makes the people move away from a place—for instance, a lack of jobs or social opportunities. Pull factors, meanwhile, are why people want to come to a place, for reasons such as better job opportunities or easier access to amenities, including education and healthcare. These aspects are the "push" factors and the "pull" factors.
Ajaero and Patience C. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract This paper examined the effects of rural-urban migration on the rural communities of Southeastern Nigeria.
Data were obtained using mixed methods approach comprising questionnaire surveys and key informant interviews. Six rural local government areas LGAs were selected based on population size and spatial equity from two states of Southeastern Nigeria.
From each of the rural LGAs, fifty migrant-sending households were sampled for the study. Multiple regression and hierarchical cluster analyses were used to estimate and categorize the effects of rural-urban migration due to remittances and community projects executed by the rural-urban migrants, respectively.
In addition, the Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were utilized in prioritizing areas for development interventions in the rural communities. The regression analysis shows that rural-urban migration contributes significantly towards the development of their rural communities through monetary remittances and the involvement of the rural-urban migrants in community development projects.
Based on the findings, recommendations such as initiation of development projects based on the identified needs of each of the rural communities to augment the effects of migration in the study area are made.
Introduction Globally, the nexus between migration and development has remained an issue under vigorous academic debate [ 1 — 6 ].
Therefore, the process of people migrating to other areas in search of a better life is not a novel one. What has however gained currency is the increasing voluntary movement in quest of better quality of life by low-skill and low-wage workers as well as high-skill and high-wage workers from less developed rural areas to more developed urban areas, especially among the poor in the developing countries [ 7 — 10 ].
In this regard, rural-urban migration results from the search for perceived or real opportunities as a consequence of rural-urban inequality in wealth [ 1112 ].
Migration has also been identified as a survival strategy utilized by the poor, especially the rural dwellers. The assessment of the effects of migration on rural areas has remained relevant since migration acts as a catalyst in the transformation process of not only the destiny of individual migrants but also the conditions of family members left behind, local communities, and the wider sending regions.
One significant source of development for the rural populace as a result of this increasing drift towards the cities is remittances. Consequently, the effects of rural-urban migration in the rural places of origin of migrants may be manifest in two ways.
First, the rural-urban migrants send remittances to their relatives in the rural areas and these remittance-receiving households use the remittances for various purposes. Secondly, these rural-urban migrants execute various rural developmental projects in their rural areas of origin.
In Nigeria, most migrants coming from a particular rural community to live in an urban area usually form rural community associations in the urban area.
These community associations in the urban areas articulate, from time to time, the developmental needs of their rural communities of origin and contribute resources to execute projects such as road construction and the award of educational scholarships to students in the rural areas.
A combination of these rural community projects executed by the rural-urban migrants and the uses of remittances by rural remittance-receiving households serve as indicators of the effects of rural-urban migration on the population concerned.
Accordingly, each population ranks community developmental projects and uses of remittances in the order of importance they believe will ensure their satisfaction and happiness. It is also the existence of these projects and the uses of remittances derivable from the migration process that reflect the level of socioeconomic development that can be traceable to rural-urban migration [ 29 ].
Therefore, the combination of these projects by migrants and the various uses of remittances in the past three years, according to the respondents, are what they see as indicators of development in their rural communities. However, these studies focus mainly on international migration and on uses of remittances leaving the research that estimates the effects of rural-urban migration on rural communities in developing countries undone.
Rural out-migration is important in the Igbo speaking areas of Southeastern Nigeria. This is because the mass exodus of people from the overpopulated areas of Igboland has been one of the most spectacular phenomena of the 20th century in Nigeria [ 38 ].
Studies on migration in Southeastern Nigeria include an assessment of changes in urban-rural ties from to in Eastern Nigeria [ 39 ].
Also, another study in Anambra state found that many Igbo families encouraged their family members to migrate because of the belief that their continued stay in the village will not bring financial success [ 40 ].
Moreover, a study carried out in Aba, southeastern Nigeria, focused only on rural-urban interactions without examining the migratory processes that yielded the interactions [ 41 ] while [ 34 ] concentrated on international migration and its impact on livelihoods.
Recently, [ 42 ] carried out a study of rural-urban migration on the poverty status of migrants in urban areas of Abia state.
In other parts of Nigeria, the factors associated with drift of youths from rural to urban areas in Kwara state have been examined [ 43 ]. Reference [ 44 ] used the logistic regression model to appraise the factors of rural-urban migration into Lagos state while the characteristics and determinants of rural-urban migration in Ajeromi-Ifelodun LGA of Lagos state have also been investigated [ 45 ].Estimation of the Effects of Rural-Urban Migration in the Study Area.
In this study, the estimation of the effects of rural-urban migration in the rural communities (places of origin of migrants) is anchored on two categories of independent variables.
|Primate city The dominant conurbation s of a country can benefit to a greater extent from the same things cities offer, making them magnets for not just the non-urban population, but also urban and suburban population from other cities. Dominant conurbations are quite often primate citiesbut do not have to be.|
|Urbanisation: Rural to Urban Drift | Papua New Guinea YU TOK RADIO - Youth Outreach Program||This study aims at identifying the major causes and consequences of the movement of people from rural to urban areas.|
|Urbanisation: Rural to Urban Drift | Papua New Guinea YU TOK RADIO - Youth Outreach Program||Introduction Migration processes have been existent throughout all times and in all regions of the world.|
|THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION.||What are your views on the current rural to urban drift? As we can see from the numerous settlements in the city my views on the rural urban drift is that its bringing more problems for people living in the urban areas.|
What is rural-urban migration and what causes it? Effects of rural-urban migration. 3. Rural-Urban Migration in Practice - The Case of China There are different reasons that cause rural-urban migration in developing countries - they are the so-called push and pull factors.
Rural-Urban Migration. A necessity to survive College. THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION. Abstract. policy makers and the government to see the need to formulate policies for integrated rural development to check rural-urban drift in Ese-odo local government area.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY. A hundred years ago, only 20 percent of the world's population lived in urban areas, but the 20th century saw a dramatic shift that marks a turning point in history. Today, more people live in cities than in rural areas, and urbanization continues to grow around the world.
According to the World. THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION: A CASE STUDY OF EGOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE policy makers and the government to see the need to formulate policies for integrated rural development to check rural-urban drift in Reviews: 7.
Sep 20, · Urbanization is studied in terms of its effects on the ecology and economy of a region, While the discipline of urban sociology studies political, psychological and anthropological changes to human society that occur in an urban environment (urban-city).