Rhine, Philip Bond, and Robert P. Townsend,A comparison of small business finance in two Chicago minority neighborhoods, Proceedings of Conference on Business Access to Capital and Credit, March The paper focuses on some Indian and International women entrepreneur about their success journey and what factor encouraged them to be an entrepreneur, what challenges faced by them and what opportunities they got to be an entrepreneur by using their creativity, intelligence and strategies. The paper would also throw light on what opportunities are available to Indian and International women entrepreneurs and challenges which they face to start a new business firm.
The primary purpose of this paper is to found a relationship between psychological contract and employee-employer relationship.
A deep literature has done from the past few decades on psychological contract: As the world is changing because of downsizing, layoffs, mergers and acquisitions and outsourcing an organization cannot survive only by having good technology or with good training and development programs but an organization have to focus on one thing that cannot be copy by other organization.
The question is what that thing is? It is called employee-employer relationship. Organizations now, implement new ways to improve the employee-employer relationship.
In this paper stress is on the concept of employee-employer relationship and the impact of psychological contract on employee employer relationship is highlighted and also the various strategies that an organization can adopt for improving their employee- employer relationship.
Psychological contract, employee, employer, beliefs, perceptions 1. Introduction The roots of an organization development and growth lie within the healthy relationship among employee and organization. In the past few decades employment relationship has blossomed.
The employment relationship is gaining its importance because of changing scenario; employees are getting no secure jobs. An employment relationship can be managed by people management practices. People management practices comprise of Human capital, Employee behavior and Quality of the employee relationship.
These three components are interrelated in the sense that all of them required good employment relationship. Past few decades of research are witness that psychological contract is becoming an important criteria for the employment relationship.
Here along with discussion of psychological contract how the psychological contract affects the employee - employer relationship is also discussed.
Psychological Contract In this paper psychological contract is considered as the focus point as all other components of people management practices are supposed to be either positively or negatively related to psychological contract. As it is directly related to human capital a little ignorance could have drastic results on both employee as well as organizational outcomes.
|One of the times this should be done is when the performance evaluations have been prepared and the raises are being determined. One way to do this is to set up a grade system for each employee group such as the one shown below for technicians:|
|ABS Management Research ABS Management - srmvision.com||In terms of pass percentage, girls|
|Practice management by CoreCPH - Issuu||Rhine, Philip Bond, and Robert P.|
Because of worthy outcomes in the past few decades psychological contract is gaining its importance in organizations as well as in the research area.
In this competitive era psychological contract provides an opportunity to a fundamental knowledge about organization-employee and employee-employer relationship Agarwal and Bhargava, Concept of psychological contract arises from social exchange theory. The roots of the concept of psychological contract started with the work of Argyris followed by Levinson, Price, Munden, Mandl, Solley and by Schein However early writings were vague on psychological contract as they implying that they consist of mutual perceptions Kotter, ; Levinson et al.
But later on Rousseau made a clear distinction between psychological contract, composed of expectations held by an individual that may or may not be shared by others, and implied contracts, which consist of commonly understood or shared expectations. Also psychological contracts are the beliefs that employees hold towards their organization regarding the terms of the informal exchange agreements Rousseau, In total psychological contract are not expectations about what an employer or organization should give in exchange of past performance, but, psychological contracts are the beliefs or perceptions about the promises either explicit or implicit made by organization or employer.
Macneil described beliefs can arise from overt promises, sometimes employer discuss some HR practices at the time of recruitment and considered by the employees as promises and hence formed psychological contract. These are the mutual obligations in which both employee as well as employer is obliged to keep their promises.
Obligations such as hard work, accepting training or transfer can be offered in exchange for promises, either implied or stated, of pay, promotions, growth or advancement Robinson and Rousseau, In this paper, a connecting link between psychological contract and employee-employer relationship and organizational performance is tried to be established.
As past researches show that psychological contract is important to study because of its outcomes related to both employees as well as organization. In this paper we tried to establish a connecting link between psychological contract and employee-employer relationship.
Two Sides of Psychological Contract 3.
Psychological Contract Fulfillment; Psychological Contract Violation Fulfillment of psychological contract is the reason of job satisfaction, motivation to do work, contribution in decision making, loyalty towards organization and commitment towards their organization whilst on the other hand violation of psychological contract could produce worse effects for employee as well organization.
Psychological contract is the perceptions of the different parties employee and employer to the employment relationship of what each owes the other Rousseau, Psychological contract is the combination of beliefs, values, expectation and aspirations of employee as well as employer.
According to Robinson and Rousseau psychological contracts are subjective, the perceptions about the employment contract that reside in the eyes of the beholder. Employees and organization considerations sometimes may clash and situation of violation of contract may develop, however, on the other side same consideration may result in fulfillment of contract.
Mutual obligations are the essence of the employment contract Rousseau, defining the relationship between employee and employer.
These obligations are held by an employer or employee or organization, that each is bound by promise or debt to an action or course of action in relation to the other party Robinson et al. Obligations are the basic components of social exchange relationships.Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous individuals on the street to the study of global social interaction.
if need be, activate the required changes. In other words, sociology based on values relies on objective analysis of societies.
According to Burgess and Lock the family is a. Southside Virginia Community College reserves the right to decline to send and/or receive records via FAX transmission if the college considers the use of facsimile documents inconsistent with the.
The most immediate source for comparison is the values obtained by the practice in previous periods (trend analysis). However, it is also very desirable to use external references, the so-called. Data Collection and Analysis The analysis of data has been categorized in two sub-sections – Entrepreneurs‘ response and Credit Appraisal Officers‘ response Entrepreneurs‟ Response 1) Proportion of Cases sanctioned Of the 30 entrepreneurs of this sample, 29 had applied for loans but only 7 applicants‘ cases had been cleared.
The environmental issues may be also in the relation of srmvision.comnmental Analysis can be considered as part of the corporate social responsibility of the organization because the organizations should commit in environmental issues. Sociology Notes. Cargado por amisha if need be, activate the required changes.
In other words, sociology based on values relies on objective analysis of societies. According to Burgess and Lock the family is a group of persons united by ties of marriage.
father and their progeny is found in all communities. brother and sister 4/4(7).