An analysis of pluralism as the most descriptive theory of american government

The purpose of this classic collection, including some of the leading theorists of the late s, is to subject this theory to systematic scrutiny. Voicing the respective points of view of science, economics, philosophy, and psychology, the authors converge in their agreement that the conventional, pluralist interpretation of contemporary politics requires significant revision. The views of these diverse critics coalesce into the outline of what they see as a more enlightened political ideal and a more relevant descriptive theory.

An analysis of pluralism as the most descriptive theory of american government

We seek your assistance in helping to create a descriptive list see below of existing IR paradigms, approaches and theories. If you know of a particular IR theory, for example, that is not listed and described below, please e-mail the name of the theory and a brief description of it to Mark Beavis at irtheory hotmail.

Even if you only know the name, send it: The list will be maintained as an on-going project and knowledge resource which will be developed and enhanced over time. So, if you think that a particular description is inadequate, please send in a better one.

IR Paradigms, Approaches and Theories: For this reason, the balancing process helps to maintain the stability of relations between states.

A balance of power system functions most effectively when alliances are fluid, when they are easily formed or broken on the basis of expediency, regardless of values, religion, history, or form of government. Occasionally a single state plays a balancer role, shifting its support to oppose whatever state or alliance is strongest.

A weakness of the balance of power concept is the difficulty of measuring power. Balance of Terror Theory Suggested text for this entry welcome. Balance of Threat Theory Suggested text for this entry welcome. Behavioralism An approach to the study of politics or other social phenomena that focuses on the actions and interactions among units by using scientific methods of observation to include quantification of variables whenever possible.

A practitioner of behavioralism is often referred to as a behavioralist. Behaviorism refers to the ideas held by those behavioral scientists who consider only observed behavior as relevant to the scientific enterprise and who reject what they consider to be metaphysical notions of "mind" or "consciousness" Viotti, P.

Macmillan Publishing Company, New York. Chaos Theory In mathematics and physics, chaos theory describes the behavior of certain nonlinear dynamical systems that may exhibit dynamics that are highly sensitive to initial conditions popularly referred to as the butterfly effect.

As a result of this sensitivity, which manifests itself as an exponential growth of perturbations in the initial conditions, the behavior of chaotic systems appears to be random. This happens even though these systems are deterministic, meaning that their future dynamics are fully defined by their initial conditions, with no random elements involved.

This behavior is known as deterministic chaos, or simply chaos. Since the International System can be considered a nonlinear dynamic system, it is reasonable to take this theory into account for the study of the International Order. Classical Realism Also called human realism and associated with Morgenthau's exposition of realism in which the power pursuit propensity of states is derived from the basic nature of human beings as power maximisers.

This perspective holds that ideological, as well as material, factors may constitute 'power' e. Collective Security Employed during the construction of the League of Nations, the concept of collective security goes beyond the pure idea of defence to include, according to Inis Claude, 'arrangements for facilitating peaceful settlement of disputes,' assuming that the mechanisms of preventing war and defending states under armed attack will 'supplement and reinforce each other' Writing during the Cold War, Claude identifies the concept as the post-WWI name given by the international community to the 'system for maintenance of international peace Most applicable to widely inclusive international organizations such as the League and the United Nations, ideally, the arrangement would transcend the reliance on deterrence of competing alliances through a network or scheme of 'national commitments and international mechanisms.

From this, it is theorized that perfected collective security would discourage potential aggressors from angering a collectivity of states.

An analysis of pluralism as the most descriptive theory of american government

Like balance-of-power, collective security works on the assumption that any potential aggressor would be deterred by the prospect of joint retaliation, but it goes beyond the military realm to include a wider array of security problems.

It assumes that states will relinquish sovereignty and freedom of action or inaction to increasing interdependence and the premise of the indivisibility of peace.

The security that can be derived from this is part of the foundation of the neoliberal institutionalist argument. Communitarianism Suggested text for this entry welcome.

An analysis of pluralism as the most descriptive theory of american government

Complex Interdependence Theory The term 'complex interdependence' was developed by Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye and refers to the various, complex transnational connections interdependencies between states and societies.

Interdependence theorists noted that such relations, particularly economic ones, were increasing; while the use of military force and power balancing were decreasing but remained important. Reflecting on these developments, they argued that the decline of military force as a policy tool and the increase in economic and other forms of interdependence should increase the probability of cooperation among states.

The complex interdependence framework can be seen as an attempt to synthesise elements of realist and liberal thought. Finally, anticipating problems of cheating and relative gains raised by realists, interdependence theorists introduced the concept of 'regimes' to mitigate anarchy and facilitate cooperation.

Here, we can see an obvious connection to neo-liberal institutionalism. World Politics in Transition.The Philosophy of Social Science. The philosophy of social science can be described broadly as having two aims.

First, it seeks to produce a rational reconstruction of social science. Classical pluralism is the view that politics and decision making are located mostly in the framework of government, but that many non-governmental groups use their resources to exert influence. The central question for classical pluralism is how power and influence are distributed in a political process.

Stakeholder analysis means many things to different people. Various methods and approaches have been developed in different fields for different purposes, leading to confusion over the concept and practice of stakeholder analysis.

critical analysis of pluralism as a descriptive framework became more tightly focused on characterizing the essential axes of political conflict within different polities. 13 While a useful corrective to the most idealistic and unreflective pluralist analyses, Dahl’s.

The Law and Society Association, founded in , is a group of scholars from many fields and countries, interested in the place of law in social, political, economic and cultural life.

Members bring expertise in law, sociology, political science, psychology, anthropology, economics, and history as well as in other related areas to the study of sociolegal phenomena.

The theory of democratic pluralism has long provided the dominant ideal and description of politics in industrial societies with competing party systems. The purpose of this classic collection, including some of the leading theorists of the late s, is to subject this theory to systematic scrutiny.

[BINGSNIPMIX-3
Complexity - Wikipedia